Posted tagged ‘nutrients’

What CQC outcomes say about Eating and nutritional care:

February 15, 2012

A reminder from last time….. 

What CQC outcomes say about Eating and nutritional care:


What should people who use services



People who use services:

  • Are supported to have adequate nutrition and hydration.

This is because providers who comply with the regulations will:

  • Reduce the risk of poor nutrition and dehydration by encouraging and supporting people to receive adequate nutrtion and hydration
  • Provide choices of food and drink for people to meet their diverse needs, making sure the food and drink they provide is nutritionally
    balanced and supports their health.

Prompts for all providers to consider
The following prompts relate to all registered providers where they prepare,
or support people who use services to prepare, food and drink. The term
‘provide’ means the preparation of food and drink and includes where the
service gives support to people to eat and drink. The food and drink used may
be purchased either by the provider or by the person using the service. These
prompts do not cover the administration of artificial hydration which may be
essential to maintain hydration.

Outcome 5A had so much to think about we split it it down further so here is the rest of 5A to explore further…….

5A Where the service provides food and drink, people who use services
have their care, treatment and support needs met because:

●● They have food and drink that:
— are handled, stored, prepared and delivered in a way that meets the
requirements of the Food Safety Act 1990
— are presented in an appetising way to encourage enjoyment
— are provided in an environment that respects their dignity
— meet the requirements of their diverse needs
— take account of any dietary intolerances they may have.
●● They can be confident that staff will support them to meet their eating and
drinking needs with sensitivity and respect for their dignity and ability.

Here’s a suggestion from Social Care Institute for Excellence…

Use a ‘discreet sign’ for people who need assistance with meals

Use a discreet signal to indicate that someone needs assistance with eating, for example a different coloured tray. This saves people the embarrassment of having to ask, or of being asked, if they need help.

This idea can be used in different settings – so seeing how someone else has done it can be useful to you, even if they work in a different area of care.

For example, this idea has been put into practice in hospitals, where using a red tray provides an effective signal to staff without compromising the patient’s dignity. The system is being monitored and refined, but has been found helpful in promoting individual care.

A daily updated list of patients due to receive food on red trays can be included in shift handovers and provided for kitchen staff. A red tray is also a simple reminder to staff to check the patient’s notes for guidance on any specific help or nutritional needs. In several hospitals, the red tray system has been linked with protected mealtimes.
●● They are enabled to eat their food and drink as independently as possible.

There are lots of eating and drinking independent living aids available that will really support this type of independence.

●● All assistance necessary is provided to ensure they actually eat and drink,
where they want to but are unable to do so independently.

Use the ‘knife and fork’ symbol 

Placing a knife and fork symbol near someone’s bed is an easy way to help staff identify which people need support during mealtimes.

This idea can be used in different settings – so seeing how someone else has done it can be useful to you, even if they work in a different area of care.

For example, this idea has been put into practice by United Bristol Healthcare NHS Trust.
●● They have supportive equipment available to them that allows them to eat
and drink independently, wherever needed.
●● They are helped into an appropriate position that allows them to eat and
drink safely, wherever needed.
●● They are not interrupted during mealtimes unless they wish to be or an
emergency situation arises.
●● They will have any special diets or dietary supplements that their needs
require arranged on the advice of an appropriately qualified or experienced
●● They have access to specialist advice and techniques for receiving nutrition
where their needs require it.
●● The service takes into account relevant guidance, including that from the
Care Quality Commission’s Schedule of Applicable Publications (see
appendix B).


February 3, 2012

What CQC outcomes say about Eating and nutritional careselection of fruit

The outcome that relates to eating and nutritional care is:

Outcome 5: Meeting nutritional needs – Requires services that provide food to ensure:

  • a choice of suitable and nutritious food and hydration, in sufficient quantities to meet people’s needs
  • food and hydration provision meets any reasonable requirements arising from a person’s religious or cultural background
  • support, where necessary, for the purposes of enabling people to eat and drink sufficient amounts for their needs.

Regulation 14 of the Health and Social Care Act 2008

So here are some interesting facts from the Social Care Institute for Excellence

Eating and nutritional care and dignity – key points from policy and research

  • Food, nutrition and mealtimes are a high priority for older people and a top priority for older people from black and minority ethnic groups (PRIAE/Help the Aged, 2001).
  • Malnutrition affects over 10 per cent of older people (British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 2006).
  • Between 19 and 30 per cent of all people admitted to hospitals, care homes or mental health units are at risk of malnutrition (British Association for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 2007).
  • The UK Home Care Association estimates that up to 90,000 people who receive home care services could be at risk of malnutrition (Grove, 2008).
  • Public expenditure on disease-related malnutrition in the UK in 2007 has been estimated at in excess of £13 billion per annum (Elia.M, Russell, C.A. Combating Malnutrition – Recommendations for Action BAPEN 2009)
  • Malnourished patients stay in hospital longer, are three times as likely to develop complications during surgery, and have a higher mortality rate (Age Concern, 2006; BBC, 2006).
  • The needs of people from black and minority ethnic groups, including ‘basics such as food’ are not always met by mainstream services (PRIAE/Help the Aged, 2001; Afshar et al, 2002).
  • Key points in bringing about a culture change in food, nutrition and mealtimes are: good leadership, staff induction and training and adequate staffing levels (Commission for Social Care Inspection, 2006).
  • The NHS Standards for Better Health requires healthcare organisations to ensure that patients have a choice of food that is prepared safely and provides a balanced diet; and that ‘individual nutritional, personal and clinical dietary requirements are met, including any necessary help with feeding and access to food 24 hours a day’ (Department of Health, 2004e).
  • In February 2006 the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care launched clinical guidance to help the NHS identify patients who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition.
  • The NHS Essence of Care benchmarks for food and nutrition include attention to nutritional assessment, the environment, presentation of food and appropriate assistance (Department of Health, 2003c). These can be used by care homes, as well as healthcare providers, to benchmark services.


  • The evidence suggests that good hydration can help prevent falls, constipation, pressure sores, kidney stones, blood pressure problems and headaches (Ellins, 2006).
  • Poor hydration has been shown to contribute to obesity, depression, inactivity and fatigue and to prolong healing and recovery (Ellins, 2006).
  • There is some evidence to suggest that dehydration can increase mortality in stroke patients and prolong hospital stays for patients with community-acquired pneumonia (Water UK, 2005).
  • For some older people the sensation of feeling thirsty may be impaired and may not be an accurate indicator for good hydration (Kenney et al, 2001; Caroline Walker Trust Expert Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines for Food Prepared for Older People, 2004) particularly for people who have had a stroke and those with dementia (Albert et al, 1994; Water UK, 2005).
  • Following a study of four care homes, Anglian Water has launched the Health on Tap campaign (Anglian Water, 2008) to improve hydration for older people in care homes. The key findings of the study were:
    • Availability, visibility and reminders were some of the key factors to drinking more water.
    • After a regime was introduced and a water cooler installed, anecdotal evidence from one home reported: a 50 per cent reduction in falls; a greater than 50 per cent reduction in the number of residents taking laxatives; and a decrease in GP call-outs and urinary infections.
    • There were language barriers for some staff, with 50 per cent not having English as a first language.
    • Hydration does not feature as a specific training topic in its own right.
    • Residents’ fear of increased toilet trips was the main barrier to drinking more water (the report states: ‘Once the bladder had adjusted and was able to hold more volume, toilet trips soon settled down to pre-trial levels.’)
    • Peer-to-peer learning, rather than formal training, plays a large role in the knowledge and working habits of staff.
    • Knowledgeable and committed managers generate positive results.
    • Visual and mental impairments were a problem for many residents, with a high dependency on care staff to instigate water intake.
    • Staff said they would like promotional materials for themselves, residents and their families, to remind them of the importance of hydration.
    • The ability to spread and share good practice was seen as very important
      (Anglian Water, 2008).